Changes to the Xe Om Way of Life

Xe Ôm

xe: “motorbike” ôm: “hug” or “hold”

(pronounced: zay-ohm)

Sarah Turner and Ngô Thúy Hạnh (2019): Contesting socialist state visions for modern mobilities: informal struggles and strategies on Hanoi’s streets, Vietnam. International Development and Planning Review.   41(1), 43-61.

In Vietnam’s capital Hanoi, the municipal government is considering banning motorbikes from downtown streets by 2030. This, in a city of about five million motorbikes and half a million cars. The government considers cars as the ultimate sign of modernity and mobility, while motorbikes are positioned as obstructing traffic flows, polluting, and inefficient. This revanchist vision will directly impact the livelihoods of thousands of informal transport providers, especially motorbike taxi drivers (xe ôm). Already, this staple profession for rural-urban migrants is under pressure, as urban space use is increasingly restricted. Based on interviews and participant observation with xe ôm drivers, recent app-based competitors, and customers, this projects explores how this state imaginary stratifies the daily mobilities of Hanoi’s residents. Official access to streets and sidewalks (where xe ôm drivers wait for customers) is increasingly delineated according to factors such as economic and social positioning, including place of origin. Nonetheless, xe ôm drivers have their own everyday politics and tactics to reshape possible mobilities. This project thus investigates how mobility and everyday urbanism are framed, produced, and reworked in a post-socialist context undergoing profound socio-economic changes.

Historical Emergence of Xe Ôm

Vietnam’s transition into a rapidly developing country after the initiation of Đổi Mới (economic renovation) in the mid-1980s, resulted in a dramatic increase in motorbike use and adoption. While cyclos (trishaws) had formally been the main informal means of transportation for those needing to move around the city, the xe ôm overtook cyclos in the mid-1990s when city authorities banned cyclos (except for tourism in the city’s centre).

Xe ôm dot Hanoi’s streetscape, waiting at main intersections, markets, and transport hubs for customers. With one to three customers on their bikes, they weave through traffic and navigate the city like the back of their hand. The relatively low price-point for a motorbike, coupled with the lack of public transportation options, has made this two-wheeled vehicle an important primary mode of transportation in Vietnam’s capital city.

Changes to Xe Ôm Livelihoods

In recent years, xe ôm have witnessed an influx of private companies making a name for themselves in the informal motorbike taxi sector. To date, the main primary companies have been GrabBike, UberMOTO (now bought out by Grab) and Xe Ôm Than Thein (Friendly Xe Ôm). Whereas the classic or ‘traditional xe ôm’ is independent of any company, workers for these new competitors are linked to company brand names and financial systems. GrabBike is similar to their car-counterpart  in that customers request a ride through the company’s mobile app. While this is argued to increase security on both sides of the transaction, exclusion based on lack of ownership of a smart phone renders many traditional xe ôm drivers at a potential disadvantage. nevertheless, traditional xe om drivers are finding niche markets so as to be able to maintain their livelihoods and foothold in the city… more details in the article attached.

What is GrabBike?

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GrabBike was founded in 2014 by Grab, a Malaysian company. This on-demand taxi company touts itself as “the first service of its kind ever in the world” and as the only service in Vietnam that offers the “freedom to explore every corner of the city” (Osborne, 2017; GrabBike, 2017). Drivers working for this company require a motorbike license, a bike, and a smartphone that facilitates customer-to-driver interaction through the company’s application. Today, Grab (not just GrabBike) is one of Southeast Asia’s most dominant, if not the biggest, ride-hailing services.


Grab Driver in Hanoi                                  Uber Driver in Hanoi


Traditional Xe Ôm Drivers in Hanoi

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